How the Vietnam War can change a person's live


 I interviewed my grandfather James Ron Hale. The major event that changes his life was the Vietnam War. It made him aware of the suffuses of Americans. Younger Americans, ages 18 to 25 mostly college students where the largest group of protesters, even thou he was in this age group he accepted the government reassign of the war. The government's prosion was that all people had the right to live a free democracy. The United States by the way it was founded gave all Americans this right.


 The young Americans wanted freedoms to protest but did not want to earn their freedoms or make them available. Political parties would use the young Americans to farther their political gains. There were number politicians that became well known because of their option to the war. A president did not seek for reelections because his party did not support the war effort. If the United States had the ability why shouldn't we help the other nation to live as free as we do. He became very dissolution with the democrat party that he was a member, a voting member, over their stand against the war. Many male members of his family vonlteirs in the United States military survises.
The Vietnam war cost the united states over 50,000 live where lost to the Vietnam war during the same time we avaged 50,000 death a year in car accidents. Where should the protest have been saving 250,000 live or 50,000 lives? Many of his military friends volunteer for tours of duties in Vietnam and several of them went back three times because they believe in what they where doing. Each tour was 11 mouths and 11 days long. He also lost several friends in combat even with the lost of his friend he believe they where right for what they where doing.
I asked him some questions. Were you drifted during the war? He said no, he enlisted in the army. What did you do when you enlisted in the army? He was station in the country of turkey to fly planes to intercept Russian space signals. He spent two years in turkey and one year of training to get ready. All the members of his family believed in the justicecaion of the war.


U.S. Troops talking to Vietnamese


Student Protest


U.S. Troops protecting Vietnamese children

 Some facts on the Vietnam War and its aftermath

Vietnam War

The Vietnam War, the nation's longest, cost fifty-eight thousand American lives. Only the Civil War and the two world wars were deadlier for Americans. The goal was to preserve a separate, independent, noncommunist government in South Vietnam, but after April 1975, the communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam drv ruled the entire nation.
The initial reasons for U.S. involvement in Vietnam seemed logical and compelling to American leaders. Following its success in World War II, the United States faced the future with a sense of moral rectitude and material confidence. Any communist anywhere, at home or abroad, was, by definition, an enemy of the United States. When France agreed to a quasi-independent Vietnam under Emperor Bao Dai as an alternative to Ho's drv the United States decided to support the French position.
The American conception of Vietnam as a cold war battleground largely ignored the struggle for social justice and national sovereignty occurring within the country. American attention focused primarily on Europe and on Asia beyond Vietnam. The outbreak of war in Korea in 1950 served primarily to confirm Washington's belief that communist aggression posed a great danger to Asia. This apprehension, an overestimation of American power, and an underestimation of Vietnamese communist strength locked all administrations from 1950 through the 1960s into a firm anticommunist stand in Vietnam.
The United States was not a party to the Geneva Agreements and began to foster the creation of a Vietnamese regime in South Vietnam to rival that of Ho in the North. With support from Washington, South Vietnam's autocratic president Ngo Dinh Diem, who deposed Bao Dai in October 1955, resisted holding an election on the reunification of Vietnam. Diem's death left a leadership vacuum in South Vietnam, and the survival of the Saigon regime was in jeopardy. A larger war in Vietnam also raised the risk of a military clash with China. Using as a provocation alleged North Vietnamese attacks on U.S. Navy vessels in the Gulf of Tonkin in August 1964, Johnson authorized limited bombing raids on North Vietnam and secured a resolution from Congress allowing him to use military forces in Vietnam. By July 1965, Johnson faced the choice of being the first president to lose a war or of converting the Vietnam War into a massive, U.S.-directed military effort. The Vietcong struck throughout South Vietnam, including a penetration of the U.S. embassy compound in Saigon. American and South Vietnamese forces eventually repulsed the offensive and inflicted heavy losses on the Vietcong, but the fighting had exposed the reality that a quick end of the war was not in sight.
Johnson limited the bombing, began peace talks with Hanoi and the nlf and withdrew as a candidate for reelection. His successor, Richard M. Nixon, announced a program of Vietnamization, which basically represented a return to the Eisenhower and Kennedy policies of helping Vietnamese forces fight the war. Nixon gradually reduced U.S. ground troops in Vietnam, but he increased the bombing; the tonnage dropped after 1969 exceeded the already prodigious levels reached by Johnson. Nixon expanded air and ground operations into Cambodia and Laos in attempts to block enemy supply routes along Vietnam's borders. In January 1973, the United States and North Vietnam signed the Paris Peace Agreement, which provided for the withdrawal of all remaining U.S. forces from Vietnam, the return of U.S. prisoners of war, and a cease-fire. The American troops and pows came home, but the war continued. In April 1975, North Vietnamese troops and tanks converged on Saigon, and the war was over.
Why did the United States lose the war? America's infliction of enormous destruction on Vietnam served only to discredit politically the Vietnamese that the United States sought to assist. For the Vietnamese communists, the struggle was a total war for their own and their cause's survival. For the United States, it was a limited war. Despite U.S. concern about global credibility, Vietnam was a peripheral theater of the cold war. The Vietnam War taught Americans a humbling lesson about the limits of power.
The domestic consequences of the war were equally profound. From Truman through Nixon, the war demonstrated the increasing dominance of the presidency within the federal government. Vietnam also destroyed credibility within the American political process. The Vietnam War brought an end to the domestic consensus that had sustained U.S. cold war policies since World War II and that had formed the basis for the federal government's authority since the sweeping expansion of that authority under Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Vietnam War
In the Vietnam War which lasted from the mid-1950s until 1975 the United States and the southern-based Republic of Vietnam (RVN) opposed the southern-based revolutionary movement known as the Viet Cong and its sponsor, the Communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam (the DRV, or North Vietnam). The war was the second of two major conflicts that spread throughout Indochina, with Vietnam as its focal point. The First Indochina War was a struggle between Vietnamese nationalists and the French colonial regime aided by the United States. In the second war the United States replaced France as the major contender against northern-based Communists and southern insurgents.

The Origins of the War
French Indochina, which included Vietnam, Cambodia (Kampuchea), and Laos, was occupied by Japanese forces during World War II. Vietnamese Communist leader Ho Chi Minh and his Viet Minh movement organized resistance against the Japanese and in 1945 declared Vietnam an independent republic. Fearing Ho's Communism, the United States supported the restoration of French rule.

The Partition of Vietnam.
Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam were granted independence, and no foreign troops were to be stationed there. In an exchange of population, thousands of northern Vietnamese Roman Catholics moved south, while Communists moved north. Neither the United States nor the South, now led by the U.S.-backed Ngo Dinh Diem in Saigon (later renamed Ho Chi Minh City), signed the accords.
Providing economic and military aid, the United States supported Diem's refusal to hold the pledged elections, apparently assuming the popular nationalist Ho would win. After a shaky start, Diem began working to destroy the remaining Communist infrastructure in the South. His military force, the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), was advised by some 700 Americans, who replaced the French in 1956.
In the North, the DRV developed as a Communist state with ties to China and the USSR. Under Ho's direction, Vietnamese communism developed independently of Soviet and Chinese models.
Armed resistance to Diem was organized by former Viet Minh who became known as Viet Cong (Vietnamese Communists). Supplemented by cadres that had moved north after 1954 and returned a few years later, the Viet Cong organized in 1960 as the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF). The Viet Cong used assassinations, terrorist activity, and military action against government-controlled villages. Kennedy accepted (1962) a Laotian settlement that brought temporary neutralization, but South Vietnam posed a more intractable problem.

Facts contiue below the map


 The Fall of Diem.
The South Vietnamese situation became critical by mid-1963. Frustrated and fearing the war would be lost, the United States supported a military coup that overthrew and killed Diem on Nov. 2, 1963.
Increasing Soviet as well as Chinese aid fueled the resistance.
Johnson appointed General William Westmoreland to head the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV), increased the number of advisors to 23,000, and expanded economic assistance.
After a Viet Cong attack (February 1965) on U.S. Army barracks in Pleiku, the United States commenced Operation Rolling Thunder, a restricted but massive bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The public never fully supported a war whose purposes were deliberately obscure.

U.S. Escalation of the War
The decision to escalate slowly, to bomb selected military targets while avoiding excessive civilian casualties, and to fight a war of attrition in order to avoid possible confrontations with the USSR and China seriously misjudged the nature of the enemy and the strategy of people's war. As the war escalated, Johnson relied increasingly on selective service for manpower. Draftees never constituted more than 40 percent of troop strength, but their use increased opposition to the war.
Opposition to the war grew with increased U.S. involvement.

The Tet Offensive.
By late 1967 the war was stalemated. Johnson urged Westmoreland to help convince a public growing more restive that the United States was winning. The Tet offensive was a major turning point in the war.
Johnson ordered a study of the Vietnam situation when Westmoreland requested 206,000 additional troops. Tet crystallized public dissatisfaction with the war. Communists believed in "fighting and talking" which the United States now adopted as well. This aided Humphrey's campaign, but Nixon was victorious.

The Nixon Administration and Vietnam
During the election campaign Nixon made vague promises to end the war. The NLF and the North Vietnamese were unwilling to make concessions, and the South Vietnamese were basically opposed to negotiation. The Vietnamization process continued: daily combat operations were turned over to the South Vietnamese, who received the latest U.S. technology and support, and bombing raids were conducted against Communist bases in Cambodia.
Nixon disliked confining the conflict to Vietnam instead of striking at Communist sanctuaries and supply points in neighboring neutral countries.
The Cambodian incursion triggered protests in the United States. Deficit financing of the war brought uncontrolled inflation, which further soured the nation on the war.
Seeking to cut the Ho Chi Minh Trail, ARVN forces invaded Laos in February 1971. But intelligence provided by Communist agents within ARVN enabled the North Vietnamese to prepare a trap.

Effects of the War on U.S. Troops.
Racial conflict grew as black soldiers, stimulated by the civil rights and black power movements, increasingly resented fighting a "white man's war." Declining morale was not limited to Vietnam. Veterans of Vietnam formed their own antiwar organization.

The Easter Offensive.
In March 1972, Hanoi launched a major conventional invasion of the South.
President Nixon retaliated with an intensified bombing campaign, providing air support to areas under attack in the South and striking fuel depots in the Hanoi Haiphong area. Ultimately, U.S. bombing enabled ARVN to halt the offensive. The DRV won territory in the South, but its casualties from the air war were heavy. Even in victory, ARVN showed continued vulnerability: its desertion rates reached the highest levels of the war.
While improving relations with the United States, both China and the USSR nonetheless increased aid to Hanoi, in order not to be seen as abandoning their ally.
Thieu, however, rejected it because it permitted Viet Cong forces to remain in place in the South, and Nixon supported him.

The Christmas Bombing and the Paris Peace Accords.
The Thieu government was left intact, but PAVN troops retained positions in the South. Political issues were left to negotiations between the two Vietnamese governments. The last POWs were returned in March, but the United States halted talks with Hanoi about reconstruction aid, charging that the DRV had not ceased infiltrating troops to the South. The United States continued to bomb Cambodia and resumed reconnaissance flights over the DRV. Both sides prepared for further war. Renewed fighting led Thieu to declare the start of a third Indochina War in January, confident that the United States would come to his aid. Although ARVN instituted new action, the North and the PRG won increasing victories.

The Aftermath of the War
Isolationist in the wake of war, the United States eschewed further interventions, and even limited covert operations, until Ronald Reagan became president in 1981. The war cost the United States over $150 billion. Cambodia was ruled by the despotic Pol Pot regime after the war. Vietnam installed the Heng Samrin regime and retained an army of occupation. After the collapse of the Soviet Union late in 1991, Vietnam intensified its efforts to normalize relations with the United States, China, and the other nations of Southeast Asia.


All of these facts are from


U.S. Ranger's being deployed


U.S Ranger

 Websites from where I found the Images at

The Vietnam War monument:

The two U.S. Ranger Images:

The map Image:

U.S. Troops protecting vietnamese children:

U.S Troops talking to vietnamese:

Student protest: